Racist Policing Police corruption and violence – particularly against vulnerable people – were commonplace during the early 1900s. Additionally, the few African Americans who joined police forces were often assigned to black neighborhoods and faced discrimination on the job. In my opinion, these factors – controlling disorder, lack of adequate police training, lack of nonwhite officers and slave patrol origins – are among the forerunners of modern-day police brutality against African Americans.Jim Crow lawsSlave patrols formally dissolved after the Civil War ended. But formerly enslaved people saw little relief from racist government policies as they promptly became subject to Black Codes.For the next three years, these new laws specified how, when and where African Americans could work and how much they would be paid. They also restricted black voting rights, dictated how and where African Americans could travel and limited where they could live.The ratification of the 14th Amendment in 1868 quickly made the Black Codes illegal by giving formerly enslaved blacks equal protection of laws through the Constitution. But within two decades, Jim Crow laws aimed at subjugating African Americans and denying their civil rights were enacted across southern and some northern states, replacing the Black Codes.For about 80 years, Jim Crow laws mandated separate public spaces for blacks and whites, such as schools, libraries, water fountains and restaurants – and enforcing them was part of the police’s job. Blacks who broke laws or violated social norms often endured police brutality.Meanwhile, the authorities didn’t punish the perpetrators when African Americans were lynched. Nor did the judicial system hold the police accountable for failing to intervene when black people were being murdered by mobs. Reverberating todayFor the past five decades, the federal government has forbidden the use of racist regulations at the state and local level. Yet people of color are still more likely to be killed by the police than whites.The Washington Post tracks the number of Americans killed by the police by race, gender and other characteristics. The newspaper’s database indicates that 229 out of 992 of those who died that way in 2018, 23% of the total, were black, even though only about 12% of the country is African American.Policing’s institutional racism of decades and centuries ago still matters because policing culture has not changed as much as it could. For many African Americans, law enforcement represents a legacy of reinforced inequality in the justice system and resistance to advancement – even under pressure from the civil rights movement and its legacy.In addition, the police disproportionately target black drivers.When a Stanford University research team analyzed data collected between 2011 and 2017 from nearly 100 million traffic stops to look for evidence of systemic racial profiling, they found that black drivers were more likely to be pulled over and to have their cars searched than white drivers. They also found that the percentage of black drivers being stopped by police dropped after dark when a driver’s complexion is harder to see from outside the vehicle.This persistent disparity in policing is disappointing because of progress in other regards.There is greater understanding within the police that brutality, particularly lethal force, leads to public mistrust, and police forces are becoming more diverse.What’s more, college students majoring in criminal justice who plan to become future law enforcement officers now frequently take “diversity in criminal justice” courses. This relatively new curriculum is designed to, among other things, make future police professionals more aware of their own biases and those of others. In my view, what these students learn in these classes will make them more attuned to the communities they serve once they enter the workforce. Outrage over racial profiling and the killing of African Americans by police officers and vigilantes in recent years helped give rise to the Black Lives Matter movement.But tensions between the police and black communities are nothing new.There are many precedents to the Ferguson, Missouri protests that ushered in the Black Lives Matter movement. Those protests erupted in 2014 after a police officer shot unarmed 18-year-old Michael Brown; the officer was subsequently not indicted.The precedents include the Los Angeles riots that broke out after the 1992 acquittal of police officers for beating Rodney King. Those riots happened nearly three decades after the 1965 Watts riots, which began with Marquette Frye, an African American, being pulled over for suspected drunk driving and roughed up by the police for resisting arrest. In addition, law enforcement officers and leaders are being trained to recognize and minimize their own biases in New York City and other places where people of color are disproportionately stopped by the authorities and arrested.But the persistence of racially biased policing means that unless American policing reckons with its racist roots, it is likely to keep repeating mistakes of the past. This will hinder police from fully protecting and serving the entire public.Connie Hassett-Walker, Associate Professor of Criminal Justice, Kean UniversityThis article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.SEE ALSO:Cops Carry Out ‘Death Sentence’ In Shooting Of Young Black Man In Texas, Neighbors SayPeople Are Blaming Kevin Durant’s Injury On The Curse Of The Knicks I’m a criminal justice researcher who often focuses on issues of race, class and crime. Through my research and from teaching a course on diversity in criminal justice, I have come to see how the roots of racism in American policing – first planted centuries ago – have not yet been fully purged.Slave patrolsThere are two historical narratives about the origins of American law enforcement.Policing in southern slave-holding states had roots in slave patrols, squadrons made up of white volunteers empowered to use vigilante tactics to enforce laws related to slavery. They located and returned enslaved people who had escaped, crushed uprisings led by enslaved people and punished enslaved workers found or believed to have violated plantation rules.The first slave patrols arose in South Carolina in the early 1700s. As University of Georgia social work professor Michael A. Robinson has written, by the time John Adams became the second U.S. president, every state that had not yet abolished slavery had them.Members of slave patrols could forcefully enter anyone’s home, regardless of their race or ethnicity, based on suspicions that they were sheltering people who had escaped bondage.The more commonly known precursors to modern law enforcement were centralized municipal police departments that began to form in the early 19th century, beginning in Boston and soon cropping up in New York City, Albany, Chicago, Philadelphia and elsewhere.The first police forces were overwhelmingly white, male and more focused on responding to disorder than crime.As Eastern Kentucky University criminologist Gary Potter explains, officers were expected to control a “dangerous underclass” that included African Americans, immigrants and the poor. Through the early 20th century, there were few standards for hiring or training officers. 62 Black Men And Boys Killed By Police AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to FacebookFacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitterTwitterShare to MoreAddThisMoreShare to EmailEmailEmail
Archaeologists have discovered an underground cave in Mexico filled with untouched Maya artifacts, according to Smithsonian Magazine. It is hoped that this important find will shed light on relations between the Maya and their neighbors, and may even hold clues to the rise and fall of this rich, ancient civilization. The discovery was made at a major site of Mayan ruins called Chichén Itzá, on the Yucatan Peninsula. This impressive complex of ruined buildings, temples and palaces includes the famous stepped pyramid known as El Castillo, a temple dedicated to the Mayan serpent deity Kukulcan.North-west view of the El Castillo (Temple of Kukulkan). El Castillo, also known as the Temple of Kukulcan, is a Mesoamerican step-pyramid that dominates the center of the Chichen Itza archaeological site in the Mexican state of Yucatán. Chichen Itza was a large pre-Columbian city built by the Maya people of the Terminal Classic period. The archaeological site is located in Tinúm Municipality, Yucatán State, Mexico.The temple sits at the center of a vast archaeological site, once one of the most important cities in the region. Chichén Itzá rose to prominence in around 600 AD, and developed into a major economic regional power.According to National Geographic, it remained the regional capital until the mid-13th century, when economic problems, depopulation, and invasion by the neighboring Mayapan ruler contributed to its eventual decline.The site is one of the most important and archaeologically rich areas of the Yucatan Peninsula, and this latest find comes in the wake of a wider project that aims to understand the vast subterranean network that exists underneath the ruins.Sight of the Mayan pyramid in ruins in the archaeological Balamku enclosure in the reservation of the biosphere of Calakmul, Campeche, MexicoThe Great Maya Aquifer Project is currently exploring the enormous cave system that runs underneath the Yucatan Peninsula, which, at 215 miles long, forms the longest flooded cave ever discovered on Earth.As part of this project, underwater archaeologist Guillermo de Anda and other members of the Great Maya Aquifer Project team opened up a new area of the cave network and discovered that it was filled with ancient Mayan artifacts.The objects had been deposited there around 1,000 years ago, some as ritual offerings to Tlaloc, the rain god of central Mexico. According to The Washington Post, the Mayas had their own rain god, named Chaac, and so may have imported Tlaloc from other Mesoamerican cultures.View of an ancient Mayan frieze in the ruins of Balamku, MexicoThe cave can only be accessed by crawling through a long, small passage. Recalling the moment he entered the cave, de Anda said, “I couldn’t speak, I started to cry. I’ve analyzed human remains in [Chichén Itzá’s] Sacred Cenote, but nothing compares to the sensation I had entering, alone, for the first time in that cave,” according to National Geographic. He added, “You almost feel the presence of the Maya who deposited these things in there.”The cave is known locally as Balamku, or ‘Jaguar God’, and was actually originally discovered in 1966 when archaeologist Victor Segovia Pinto investigated it following advice from local farmers. According to National Geographic, he made a brief report, detailing 155 objects inside the cave, but then decided to seal it and not to pursue any further enquiries.Balamku, Campeche, Mexico. Photo by HJPD CC BY 3.0This decision has given modern archaeologists a unique opportunity to examine the objects in situ, and take advantage of the latest advances in technology to analyze them without removing them from their context.The artifacts found in the cave include incense burners, vases, plates and a variety of other offerings, placed there as part of Mayan rituals. The location of the cave, the difficult of the access route, and the number of objects found there suggest that it was an extremely important holy site. The archaeologists decided to leave the objects in place, to respect local culture and customs.Underground caverns and cenotes (sinkholes) occupied a special place in Maya culture, representing openings to the underworld. For this reason, they were considered to be sacred spaces, and are crucially important in understanding the culture and worldview of this important civilization.Balamkú, fresco in Structure I Balamku is a small Maya archaeological site located in the Mexican state of Campeche, within the Petén Basin. Photo by Arian Zwegers CC BY 2.0It is hoped that this discovery will shed further light on Mayan customs and practices, in addition to telling us more about the relationship between the Maya and other Mesoamerican cultures.In addition to examining the objects themselves, archaeologists hope to use cutting edge technologies to analyze the materials in and around the offerings, as this may provide insights into what actually went on in these cave rituals.Read another story from us: Long Lost Monastery of Dark Age Anglo-Saxon Princess Discovered in ScotlandAs de Anda comments, this discovery represented an important opportunity for archaeologists. “Balamku can tell us not only the moment of collapse of Chichén Itzá, it can also probably tell us the moment of its beginning. Now, we have a sealed context, with a great quantity of information, including useable organic matter, that we can use to understand the development of Chichén Itzá.”
Rip Torn, an actor with a six-decade career in more than 80 films, many television shows, and in 10 Broadway plays, died July 9, 2019, at his home in Lakeville, Connecticut, his representatives said. He was 88. Onscreen, Torn is best known for the Men in Black franchise, for the films Cross Creek and Defending Your Life, and and HBO’s The Larry Sanders Show, which brought him six Emmy Award nominations for outstanding supporting actor in a comedy series. He won the award for playing the producer Artie in 1996.Born Elmore Rual Torn Jr. in Temple, Texas, a small city north of Austin, he took on the nickname “Rip” after his father and uncle. “It’s like baseball players that were named Woods are called Piney. It’s just a nickname,” Torn told Terry Gross on WHYY’s Fresh Air in 1994. The actress Sissy Spacek was his cousin.Rip Torn in 1993. Photo by Alan Light CC by 2.0He graduated from the University of Texas, studying drama, but served two years in the Army before moving to Los Angeles in the mid-1950s. He made his film debut with an uncredited role in Elia Kazan’s film Baby Doll, before relocating to New York City to study at the Actor’s Studio.Torn made his Broadway debut in 1959 as part of the original cast of Tennessee Williams’ Sweet Bird of Youth as “Tom, Jr.,” a role he would reprise for the feature film and TV movie adaptations. He was nominated for a Tony award in 1960 and received a Theater World award for his performance.Rip Torn at the 1994 Emmys. Photo by Alan Light CC by 2.0Over the years, Torn “developed an unpredictable and stubborn reputation, both on camera and in his personal life,” according to NPR. “He was the kind of performer who won rave reviews for the convincing way he tore doors off hinge,” said a New York Times story.“Offstage, Torn worked to racially integrate the theater world. He vehemently defended every line, no matter how shocking at the time, of James Baldwin’s unsparingly violent play ‘Blues for Mr. Charlie’ and helped coax Baldwin, who was procrastinating, into finishing it,” the New York Times piece added.Rip Torn in 2015. Photo by Rob DiCaterino CC by 2.0Ultimately, Torn was dismissed from his role in the London production of Baldwin’s play over his “corrosive attitude.”Torn earned a reputation as an actor’s actor on stage, both Broadway and off-Broadway, as well as on screen. He continued to work in the New York theater despite his demanding TV and movie schedule as both an actor and director. He has won two Obie awards for his work off-Broadway, for Distinguished Performance in Norman Mailer’s The Deer Park (for the 1966-1967 season), and for Distinguished Direction for The Beard (1967-1968).On “The Tonight Show With Jay Leno,” actor Dennis Hopper relayed a story about Torn. “Rip and I had a little, um, problem,” Hopper said. At dinner one night, Hopper told Leno that Torn pulled a knife on him at a New York restaurant after Torn found out his role in the film Easy Rider was going to another actor.A legal feud between Hopper and Torn ensued. It ended with Torn being awarded a defamation settlement after saying Hopper’s Leno appearance skewed how the events really took place. Apparently, the knife-wielding was not one sided. The two, according to court records from the time, went “at each other with a butter knife and a salad fork.”When asked in 1994 on NPR’s Weekend Edition what he likes most about his role as Artie on the Larry Sanders Show, Torn said it had to be Garry Shandling. But the second best thing? The paycheck.Related Article: Star Wars, James Bond and Thunderbirds Star Shane Rimmer Passes Away at 89“I don’t mind the money. I paid off people who thought I’d forgotten them,” Torn said. “I am not looking around for bill collectors. I’m not, as my father used to say for many years, ‘What’s Rip doing up there?’ He said,’Treading water.’”Torn’s publicist confirmed that he is survived by his wife, Amy Wright, and four daughters: Danae, Katie, Claire and Angelica Page; and twin sons, Tony and Jon Torn.
Ryan is very critical of Trump in the book “American Carnage” by Tim Alberta of Politico, in excerpts running in various publications.Alberta wrote the former speaker could not stand the idea of another two years with the president, and saw retirement as the “escape hatch,” according to The Washington Post.Ryan quoted saying: “I’m telling you, he didn’t know anything about government. I wanted to scold him all the time.” Post Comment(s) Advertising Rocky road ahead for ‘Dreamer’ immigrants bill in US House of Representatives By AP |Washington (usa) | Published: July 12, 2019 4:30:41 pm Trump tweeted late Thursday: “He had the Majority & blew it away with his poor leadership and bad timing. Never knew how to go after the Dems like they go after us. Couldn’t get him out of Congress fast enough!”Trump may have been angered by various revelations in the book, including accounts recalling widespread negative GOP reactions to his off-colour videotaped comments in the “Access Hollywood” scandal in the closing weeks of the election campaign. But Ryan was the main focus of his Twitter page.“Paul Ryan, the failed V.P. candidate & former Speaker of the House, whose record of achievement was atrocious (except during my first two years as President), ultimately became a long-running lame-duck failure, leaving his Party in the lurch both as a fundraiser & leader”, Trump began his tweetstorm. Trump began his tweetstorm on Paul Ryan late Thursday saying Ryan blew his majority with his poor leadershipPresident Donald Trump unloaded via Twitter, on former GOP House Speaker Paul Ryan, calling him a “lame duck failure.” US House Speaker rejects Rosenstein impeachment effort Paul Ryan not comfortable with separating parents, kids at border Advertising Related News
The quake occurred at a depth of 10 km (6 miles) in an area 168 km south-southeast of the city of Ternate, the USGS said.Indonesia’s meteorology agency (BMKG) said the quake was not in danger of causing a tsunami.At least seven aftershocks stronger than magnitude 5 were recorded following the main quake, BMKG official Rahmat Triyono said in a statement. The national disaster mitigation agency also said the quake did not have the potential to case a tsunami, and asked people to remain calm and on alert for more aftershocks.Last week, the BMKG issued a tsunami warning, which was later lifted, after a magnitude 6.9 quake hit off the northeastern shore of Sulawesi, west of Sunday’s quake.Indonesia is situated on the so-called Pacific Ring of Fire, which is frequently hit by earthquakes and sometimes accompanying tsunamis.The most devastating in recent Indonesian history was on Dec. 26 in 2004, when a magnitude 9.5 quake triggered a massive tsunami that killed around 226,000 people along the shorelines of the Indian Ocean, including more than 126,000 in Indonesia.Last year, a tsunami hit the city of Palu in Sulawesi, killing thousands. Advertising Karnataka: Supreme Court to rule today, says Speaker’s powers need relook Post Comment(s) The earthquake occurred at a depth of 10 km (6 miles) at an area 168 km south-southeast of Ternate. (Google Maps)A magnitude 7.3 earthquake struck the Moluccas islands in eastern Indonesia on Sunday, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) reported, causing panic among residents, but there were no immediate reports of casualties or major damage. Earthquake of 6.2 magnitude strikes in eastern Indonesia Indonesia hunts for survivors as tsunami death toll crosses 400, thousands homeless By Reuters |Jakarta | Updated: July 14, 2019 6:25:20 pm The agency said the main quake was felt in other parts of Indonesia, including cities on Sulawesi island and in Sorong on Papua island.The quake hit hours after a magnitude 6.6 struck offshore Western Australia, south of Indonesia.“There are no reports of infrastructure damage yet,” said Iksan Subur, an official with Indonesia’s disaster mitigation agency based in the regency of South Halmahera, near the earthquake’s epicentre.“But people panicked and ran out of their houses. Some people who live near the ocean are starting to move to higher ground,” he told Reuters by phone. NRC deadline approaching, families stranded in Assam floods stay home In undecided Congress, first open call for Priyanka: She should be party chief Related News Best Of Express Earthquake of magnitude 6.6 strikes Indonesia: report Advertising
Advertising Advertising Roadshows in Gujarat to boost trade between India, Canada Canada approves contentious oil pipeline expansion, expects legal challenges After Meng’s arrest, China detained two Canadians, Michael Spavor and Michael Kovrig, for alleged spying. Their detentions are believed to be retaliation for Canada’s arrest of Meng.China also sentenced another Canadian to death for drug smuggling and suspended imports of Canadian meat products.On Friday, the British embassy said it was providing consular assistance to four British citizens who were among the teachers and students arrested in Xuzhou.Police did not say where the teachers worked, but the Education First language school expressed regret for a drug-related incident. The school said it could not confirm the nationalities of those facing alleged drug offences. Related News Global Affairs Canada did not provide details about the identity of the detainee, nor the reason for the detention. (Representational Image)A Canadian citizen has been detained in Yantai, China, Canada’s government said Saturday, a step that comes amid tense relations between the countries. Global Affairs Canada did not provide details about the identity of the detainee, nor the reason for the detention.Earlier this week, 16 foreign teachers and students and three Chinese were arrested on drug allegations in Xuzhou, about 370 miles (600 kilometers) southwest from the coastal city of Yantai. Global Affairs would not say whether the Canadian’s detention was related to those arrests.Relations between China and Canada chilled in December when Meng Wanzhou, the chief financial officer of Chinese tech giant Huawei, was arrested in Vancouver on a U.S. arrest warrant. Meng, who is also the daughter of Huawei’s founder, is under house arrest in her Vancouver mansion. Plastic straws and bags no more: Canada aims to clean up its act By AP |Ottawa | Updated: July 14, 2019 9:54:15 am Post Comment(s)
Intel has designed a pair of smart glasses that won’t make you look like a hopeless geek.Called “Vaunt,” the peepers, which are still in the prototype phase, look like ordinary glasses, save for a faint, red glimmer that occasionally appears on the right lens.Information sent to the glasses appear to be displayed on a screen but in reality is beamed to the retina of a wearer’s eye.”The prototypes I wore in December also felt virtually indistinguishable from regular glasses,” Dieter Bohn wrote in a hands-on review published Monday in The Verge. The Intel prototype did not have a microphone, noted Verge’s Bohn, but he speculated that future models may have one that would enable them to interact with artificial intelligence software like Amazon’s Alexa, Google’s Assistant or Apple’s Siri.Intel will be launching an early access program for developers later this year, he noted, so they can start experimenting with things the glasses might be able to do. Gaming is one area that’s attracted consumer interest in virtual reality and augmented reality devices, but Vaunt isn’t likely to make much headway in that market.”The device is too simplistic for any visually intensive applications,” Abbruzzese said.Power is an issue for Vaunt.”The glasses don’t have cameras, or a lot of processing ability, or the ability to display data in any color besides red,” noted Hanich.”Something like Pokémon Go may work on them,” she said, “but developers will have to sacrifice graphics and the ability to display an object in sync with the terrain.”There are some advantages of not having a camera, however.”Part of the backlash against Google Glass was that the glasses were so conspicuous, including a visible camera,” Hanich recalled. “Without a camera, Vaunt has few problems in terms of privacy.” “They come in several styles, work with prescriptions, and can be worn comfortably all day,” he added. The Vaunt electronics are incredibly compact. Bridge to Realistic Market Low Geek Factor, Low Power With retinal projection, the image is ‘painted’ to the back of the wearer’s retina. John P. Mello Jr. has been an ECT News Network reportersince 2003. His areas of focus include cybersecurity, IT issues, privacy, e-commerce, social media, artificial intelligence, big data and consumer electronics. He has written and edited for numerous publications, including the Boston Business Journal, theBoston Phoenix, Megapixel.Net and GovernmentSecurity News. Email John. While you may not stick out in a crowd wearing Vaunt, you’re not going to overwhelm anyone with its power, either.”Vaunt is purposefully stripped down hardware-wise — no camera, touchpad, microphone,” said Eric Abbruzzese, a senior analyst at ABI Research.”That means these are only going to serve the most simple applications, mainly around heads-up notifications — navigation, step-by-step instruction, personal notifications,” he told TechNewsWorld. Not Much for Gamers Always in Focus Vaunt uses Bluetooth and is designed to work with a smartphone, much as smartwatches do.A very low-powered laser (VCSEL) shines a red monochrome image at around 400 x 150 pixels onto a holographic reflector on the right lens of the glasses. That image is sent to the back of the eyeball, directly to the retina.Because the image is sent directly to the retina, it’s always in focus, which is why the system works on both prescription and non-prescription glasses. Although devices like Vaunt are creating a buzz now, it likely will be a year or two before AR glasses make it to the mass market.The inflection point for consumer AR headgear likely will be in the late 2019-early 2020 time frame, ABI predicted.”It really requires strong brands and marketing to push AR glasses to the masses,” Abbruzzese said.Apple has such a brand, and it is rumored to have a pair of AR specs in the works.When those hit the market, Abbruzzese noted, there will be millions of shipments, which hasn’t yet occurred anywhere in the AR space.”Vaunt isn’t likely to have that sort of impact,” he explained, “but they can be an important bridge between the consumer-side disappointment of Google Glass to a more realistic consumer AR market.”Vaunt is a clear sign that wearable display technology is quickly advancing, said Brian Blau, a research director at Gartner.”Vaunt represents a form factor that any technology provider would see as a great next step, as it’s one that isn’t that different from a typical pair of eyeglasses,” he told TechNewsWorld.”It will be some years before smart glasses like Vaunt arrive in consumers hands,” Blau said, “but it’s great to see these early prototypes as they get brands and businesses interested in smart glasses, even at this early stage of their development.” Tough Sell for Consumers “It’s a pretty light-touch device,” said Kristen Hanich, an analyst at Parks Assocates.”It mostly allows users to see contextual information such as notifications from phones, map directions, recipes, shopping lists and such,” she told TechNewsWorld.Augmented reality devices like Vaunt have been used in settings such as manufacturing, logistics and healthcare, Hanich noted. However, “a lot of those applications are being driven by more powerful devices — such as Google Glass and Microsoft’s HoloLens — that have the ability to see what’s directly in front of the user.” Vaunt has some benefits that could attract enterprise interest, said ABI’s Abbruzzese.”Enterprises will be interested in these thanks to the user-friendly form factor — better for worker safety and all-day use cases,” he pointed out.Also, “some of the possible applications — primarily step by step instructions — can be a quick value-add for customers,” Abbruzzese said.Attracting consumer interest may be a harder sell, however.”Vaunt hasn’t solved one of Google Glass’ primary downfalls, which was lack of valuable use cases for consumers,” Abbruzzese observed.Consumers will have to be sold on the value of Vaunt, but that sell will be easier if the price is right, said Parks’ Hanich. “If it’s priced similar to a premium smart watch, then there’ll be some potential there.”
Source:http://www.jefferson.edu/ Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Nov 1 2018In a new study, Jefferson (Philadelphia University + Thomas Jefferson University) researchers found chemical differences between hot and cold brew coffee that may have health impacts. In particular, the researchers found that hot-brewed coffee has higher levels of antioxidants, which are believed to be responsible for some of the health benefits of coffee.The study, published Oct. 30 in Scientific Reports, also found that the pH levels of both hot and cold coffee were similar, ranging from 4.85 to 5.13 for all coffee samples tested. Coffee companies and lifestyle blogs have tended to tout cold brew coffee as being less acidic than hot coffee and thus less likely to cause heartburn or gastrointestinal problems.Related StoriesCoffee may boost weight loss, concludes studyScientists discover weakness in common cold virusUnsupportive parenting may have negative health implications for children, study suggestsThe study was done by Niny Rao, PhD, associate professor of chemistry, and Megan Fuller, PhD, assistant professor of chemistry, both of them coffee drinkers who wondered whether the chemical make-up of cold brew differed from that of hot coffee.While the popularity of cold brew coffee has soared in recent years–the U.S. market grew 580 percent from 2011 to 2016–they found almost no studies on cold brew, which is a no-heat, long-steeping method of preparation. At the same time, there is well-documented research that hot-brewed coffee has some measurable health benefits, including lower risk of some cancers, diabetes and depression.While the overall pH levels were similar, Fuller and Rao found that the hot-brewed coffee method had more total titratable acids, which may be responsible for the hot cup’s higher antioxidant levels.”Coffee has a lot of antioxidants, if you drink it in moderation, research shows it can be pretty good for you,” Fuller said. “We found the hot brew has more antioxidant capacity.”And considering hot and cold brews have comparable pH levels, Rao said, coffee drinkers should not consider cold brew a “silver bullet” for avoiding gastrointestinal distress.
Source:https://www.stjude.org/media-resources/news-releases/2018-medicine-science-news/st-jude-announces-extensive-resource-to-advance-leukemia-research.html Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Nov 15 2018St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital today announced the availability of one of the world’s largest collections of leukemia samples from children and adults.The effort, called PROPEL (Public Resource of Patient-derived and Expanded Leukemias), aims to advance fundamental research on the biology of leukemia and to help develop cures by sharing unique patient-derived xenograft samples with researchers around the world. PROPEL samples are available free of charge to researchers with no obligation to collaborate, which is unique in the leukemia community. The initiative is the latest effort by St. Jude to advance cures by sharing extensive data samples with the global scientific community.Related StoriesCancer stem cells elude the body’s immune cells by deactivating danger detectorHeart failure drug could be effective in treating leukemiaStudy shows how SIRT1 plays key role in maintaining the regenerative potential of leukemic stem cellsLeukemias are a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in children and adults. Despite a 90 percent overall cure rate for acute lymphoblastic leukemia in pediatric patients, cure rates are lower for patients with acute myeloid leukemia and other forms of the disease. Survival rates for adults with acute leukemias are worse. Treatment often leaves survivors with lingering, treatment-related health problems.”Despite therapeutic advances and improved outcomes, we must make progress to cure leukemia and minimize the side effects of treatment for survivors,” said Charles Mullighan, M.B.B.S., M.D., a member of the St. Jude Department of Pathology and primary investigator for creating PROPEL. “By making xenograft data available to the research community on PROPEL, we hope to accelerate discovery and cures for leukemia and improve long-term outcomes for survivors.”The PROPEL data portal provides access to 219 samples of human leukemias. With the consent of patients and parents, these cancers were grown in mice and are known as patient-derived xenografts. Researchers can submit a request to access the samples and associated genetic data for xenografts and primary tumors.The xenografts were derived from patients with diverse subtypes of B- and T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute erythroid leukemia, and mixed-phenotype acute leukemia. The PROPEL inventory will grow as additional leukemia subtypes and cases of acute leukemia, including acute myeloid leukemia, become available. The data is unique because it provides side-by-side characterization of the xenografts and the corresponding patient samples.
Reviewed by Alina Shrourou, B.Sc. (Editor)Jan 10 2019Incorporating pharmacists with an expanded scope into the community or hospital emergency departments (ED) could significantly reduce ED crowdedness, according to a new study.Researchers from the University of Waterloo found that almost one-third of non-urgent ED visits in Ontario were for conditions that could potentially be managed by pharmacists with an expanded scope of practice – available in other jurisdictions in Canada.”Overcrowding in EDs is a concern most Canadians can relate to, and we know that it can lead to increased mortality and a higher rate of patients who leave without receiving treatment,” said Wasem Alsabbagh, a professor at the Waterloo School of Pharmacy. “Our findings support that we need to see more pharmacists working with expanded scope in community practice or based in the ED. This may reduce crowdedness and free more resources in EDs to care for more acute patients.”Related Stories’Traffic light’ food labels associated with reduction in calories purchased by hospital employeesStudy: Two-thirds of pneumonia patients receive more antibiotics than they probably needHome-based support network helps stroke patients adjust after hospital dischargeAs about one in five patients who seek emergency care have non-urgent health concerns, the study examined what proportion of non-urgent or unnecessary visits could be potentially managed by a pharmacist. The researchers analyzed data from 2010 to 2017, examining all Ontario hospital ED cases. They qualified cases based on standard scales that measure the severity of patient concerns and used statistics to assess which ones could be managed by pharmacists working with an expanded scope.The services pharmacists can provide have been expanding in Canada over the last decade, though there is significant variety – both in the rate and scope – between provinces. In Alberta, for example, pharmacists were granted the ability since 2007 to prescribe both independently and for minor ailments, renew prescriptions, administer injections, and more. Ontario has expanded scope more slowly with the addition of services like prescriptions renewal and influenza vaccination in 2012. More vaccines were added later in 2016.”Our study included all expanded scope services in use across Canada when assessing which ED cases pharmacists could manage,” said Alsabbagh. “Over the seven years of the study period, we found that pharmacists with an expanded scope could potentially have managed nearly 1.5 million cases in Ontario.”The most frequent ED cases that could be managed by a pharmacist included skin related concerns like dermatitis and other conditions like a cough or inflammation of the ear canal, nasal passages, and throat.The study by Waterloo professors Wasem Alsabbagh and Sherilyn Houle is called The proportion, conditions, and predictors of emergency department visits that can be potentially managed by pharmacists with an expanded scope of practice and was recently published in the journal Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy. Source:https://uwaterloo.ca/
Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Mar 28 2019For the first time in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), patients get a chance to scuba dive, snowboard, and go on a safari or other adventures, all from their hospital bed. The 360 degree immersions into virtual environments were extremely well received by PICU patients and their parents, according to results from a pilot study from Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago that were published in Pediatric Critical Care Medicine. All 32 study participants, ages 3-17 years, reported that they enjoyed using virtual reality. All of their parents agreed, with over 80 percent reporting that virtual reality experience calmed their child.Related StoriesGuidelines to help children develop healthy habits early in lifeNew therapeutic food boosts key growth-promoting gut microbes in malnourished childrenPuzzling paralysis affecting healthy children warns CDC”We conducted this study to make sure that it is feasible to introduce virtual reality into a pediatric intensive care setting and that kids respond well to it,” says senior author Marcelo Malakooti, MD, from Lurie Children’s who also is Assistant Professor of Pediatrics-Critical Care at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. “We are now introducing virtual reality more broadly to critically ill children on the unit who are often alert, but stuck in bed just passively watching TV. Such minimal engagement with their environment over prolonged hospitalization can lead to delirium or other cognitive and emotional impairments. We hope that the stimulation and interaction that virtual reality offers will mitigate that risk and improve outcomes for these children.”Based on the positive results of the pilot study, Dr. Malakooti, lead author Colleen Badke, MD, and colleagues at Lurie Children’s are now conducting a larger study to examine how virtual reality use in the PICU impacts pain, anxiety and physical factors like blood pressure and heart rate variation, among others. Source:https://www.luriechildrens.org/
Reviewed by Kate Anderton, B.Sc. (Editor)May 2 2019 The Department of Justice on Wednesday submitted a brief to a federal appeals court making its case as to why the entire Affordable Care Act should be struck down in the wake of the congressional repeal of the tax penalty for failing to have insurance.Meanwhile, the House Rules Committee held a historic hearing on a “Medicare-for-all” bill, kicking off what is likely to be a lengthy debate that will span the 2020 election.And while abortion opponents are counting on the newly configured U.S. Supreme Court to uphold legislation curtailing the procedure, the Supreme Court in Kansas found that the state constitution includes a right to abortion for women.This week’s panelists are Julie Rovner of Kaiser Health News, Margot Sanger-Katz of The New York Times, Paige Winfield Cunningham of The Washington Post and Erin Mershon of Stat News.Also, Rovner interviews KHN’s Carmen Heredia Rodriguez, who wrote the latest “Bill of the Month” feature about a pricey snakebite.If you have an exorbitant or inexplicable medical bill you’d like to submit for our series, you can do that here.Among the takeaways from this week’s podcast: Even as the Trump administration is arguing in court that the entire ACA should fall, it is relying on provisions in the law for a number of health care initiatives, including efforts to cut fraud, fight the opioid crisis and transform the Medicaid system. The House Rules Committee might have been an unusual venue for a hearing on setting up a single-payer, “Medicare-for-all” health system, but the discussion this week before the panel was surprisingly thoughtful and measured. The Congressional Budget Office report on a switch to a single-payer health system points out that although two bills before Congress would establish a “Medicare-for-all” plan, there are numerous ways to get universal health care and other countries have tried a variety of options that may be worth considering. The House bill for health spending seeks to block the Trump administration’s efforts to cut Title X reproductive health funding for Planned Parenthood. Meanwhile, two separate federal courts have issued nationwide injunctions barring the family planning regulations while court proceedings continue. That spending bill also would add $50 million for research on gun violence. Public health advocates hope researchers can identify factors that may lead to gun deaths. That could mimic some of the success highway experts have had in finding ways to reduce traffic deaths. Related StoriesDelaney’s debate claim that ‘Medicare for All’ will shutter hospitals goes overboard‘Medicare for All’ emerges as early divide in first democratic debateMedicare going in ‘right direction’ on opioid epidemicPlus, for extra credit, the panelists recommend their favorite health policy stories of the week they think you should read too:Julie Rovner: Vice News’ “There’s No Proof ‘Abortion Reversals’ Are Real. This Study Could End the Debate,” by Carter ShermanPaige Winfield Cunningham: The Washington Post’s “Why Vermont’s Single-Payer Effort Failed and What Democrats Can Learn From It,” by Amy GoldsteinMargot Sanger-Katz: The New York Times’ “They Want It to Be Secret: How a Common Blood Test Can Cost $11 or Almost $1,000,” by Margot Sanger-KatzErin Mershon: The New York Times’ “In Washington, Juul Vows to Curb Youth Vaping. Its Lobbying in States Runs Counter to That Pledge,” by Sheila KaplanTo hear all our podcasts, click here.And subscribe to What the Health? on iTunes, Stitcher, Google Play or Spotify. This article was reprinted from khn.org with permission from the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Kaiser Health News, an editorially independent news service, is a program of the Kaiser Family Foundation, a nonpartisan health care policy research organization unaffiliated with Kaiser Permanente.
Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)May 7 2019An international clinical trial has found that a new drug for Huntington disease is safe, and that treatment with the drug successfully lowers levels of the abnormal protein that causes the debilitating disease in patients.In a study published today in the New England Journal of Medicine, researchers from UBC and their colleagues have demonstrated for the first time that the drug, IONIS-HTTRX (now known as RO7234292) successfully lowered levels of the mutant huntingtin protein–the toxic protein that causes Huntington disease–in the central nervous system of patients.”This is a tremendously exciting and promising result for patients and families affected by this devastating genetic brain disorder,” said Dr. Blair Leavitt, neurologist and director of research at the Centre for Huntington Disease at UBC. “For the first time, we have evidence that a treatment can not only decrease levels of the toxic disease-causing protein in patients, but that it is also safe and very well tolerated.”Related StoriesQuorn protein stimulates muscle building to a greater extent than milk proteinMother calls for protein shake regulation after daughter diesVirus killing protein could be the real antiviral hero finds studyLeavitt, who is also a senior scientist at the Centre for Molecular Medicine and Therapeutics in the UBC faculty of medicine, treated all the Canadian participants in this study, including the first patient enrolled in the study in September 2015.Huntington disease (HD) is a fatal genetic neurological disease. It usually develops in adulthood and causes abnormal involuntary movements, psychiatric symptoms and dementia. About one in 10,000 people in Canada have HD. To date, no effective treatments have been proven to slow down progression of this disorder. HD is caused by a single known genetic mutation, and each child of a carrier of the mutation has a 50 per cent chance of inheriting the disease.The trial enrolled 46 patients with early HD at nine study centres in Canada, the United Kingdom, and Germany. Of the 46 patients, 34 were randomized to receive the drug and 12 were randomized to receive placebo. Each participant received four doses of the drug and all study participants completed the study and have continued to receive the active drug in an on-going open-label study. The drug was administered monthly to patients via an injection directly into the cerebrospinal fluid.The researchers, led by Dr. Sarah Tabrizi, director of the Huntington Disease Centre at University College London and global chief investigator of the IONIS-HTTRX clinical trial, found that the drug produced significant decreases in the levels of mutant huntingtin protein in the patients’ cerebrospinal fluid. None of the patients experienced any serious adverse reactions, suggesting that the treatment is safe and well tolerated by patients.The drug is currently being evaluated in a large phase three multi-center clinical trial being performed at the Centre for Huntington Disease at UBC and other HD centres around the world. This study is designed to determine whether the treatment slows or halts the progression of disease symptoms. Source:https://news.ubc.ca/2019/05/06/huntington-drug-successfully-lowers-levels-of-disease-causing-protein/
Google’s firing of an engineer over his controversial memo criticizing its diversity policies and “politically correct monoculture” didn’t violate U.S. labor law, a federal agency lawyer concluded. Citation: Google’s firing of Damore in ‘monoculture’ case found legal (2018, February 19) retrieved 18 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-02-google-damore-monoculture-case-legal.html ©2018 Bloomberg News Distributed by Tribune Content Agency, LLC. Statements in James Damore’s 3,000-word memo “regarding biological differences between the sexes were so harmful, discriminatory, and disruptive” that they fell outside protections for collective action in the workplace, an associate general counsel for the National Labor Relations Board wrote in a six-page memo disclosed Thursday.Damore withdraw his complaint in January and his lawyer has said she’s focusing instead on the engineer’s lawsuit accusing the internet giant of harassing him and others over their conservative political views.When he was dismissed in August, Damore accused Google of violating the employee right to engage in “concerted activity” to address workplace issues, a category which the labor board has found can include forms of activism ranging from lawsuits to strikes to social media posts.”Much of” Damore’s memo was probably protected under the law, the labor board’s attorney, Jayme Sophir, said in the Jan. 16 memo. But Sophir went on to find that Google discharged Damore only for his “discriminatory statements,” which aren’t shielded by labor law.Because companies have a duty to comply with equal employment laws and an interest in promoting diversity, “employers must be permitted to ‘nip in the bud’ the kinds of employee conduct that could lead to a ‘hostile workplace,’ rather than waiting until an actionable hostile workplace has been created before taking action,” Sophir wrote.The company “carefully tailored” its messages in firing Damore and in addressing employees afterward “to affirm their right to engage in protected speech while prohibiting discrimination or harassment.” Google also disciplined one of Damore’s co-workers for sending him a threatening email in response to the memo, Sophir said.Fired Google Engineer Faces Headwinds Seeking Legal RecourseGoogle declined to comment on Sophir’s memo. Damore’s attorney didn’t immediately respond to a request for comment.The labor board lawyer’s conclusion is “consistent with board precedent for decades, which has viewed speech which creates a hostile environment likely to produce both discord and divisiveness as unprotected,” said William Gould IV, who chaired the board under President Bill Clinton.”In the course of protesting working conditions you can be profane and aggressive and unpleasant, you can be militant, and it’s still protected,” Gould said. However, he said, “What separates this is its derisiveness and stereotypical characterization of one gender.” (With assistance from Hassan Kanu and Ellen Huet.) Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Google engineer fired for sexist memo sues ex-employer
Associate professor of mechanical engineering Sangbae Kim and his team at the Biomimetic Robotics Lab developed the quadruped robot, the MIT Cheetah. Credit: David Sella If you were to ask someone to name a new technology that emerged from MIT in the 21st century, there’s a good chance they would name the robotic cheetah. Developed by the MIT Department of Mechanical Engineering’s Biomimetic Robotics Lab under the direction of Associate Professor Sangbae Kim, the quadruped MIT Cheetah has made headlines for its dynamic legged gait, speed, jumping ability, and biomimetic design. Provided by Massachusetts Institute of Technology Robots tend to achieve high torque at the expense of speed and flexibility, says Kim. Factory robots use high torque actuators but they are rigid and cannot absorb energy upon the impact that results from climbing steps. Hydraulically powered, dynamic legged robots, such as the larger, higher-payload, quadruped Big Dog from Boston Dynamics, can achieve very high force and power, but at the expense of efficiency. “Efficiency is a serious issue with hydraulics, especially when you move fast,” he adds.A chief goal of the Cheetah project has been to create actuators that can generate high torque in designs that imitate animal muscles while also achieving efficiency. To accomplish this, Kim opted for electric rather than hydraulic actuators. “Our high torque electric motors have exceeded the efficiency of animals with biological muscles, and are much more efficient, cheaper, and faster than hydraulic robots,” he says.Cheetah III: More than a speedsterUnlike the earlier versions, the Cheetah III design was motivated more by potential applications than pure research. Kim and his team studied the requirements for an emergency response robot and worked backward.”We believe the Cheetah III will be able to navigate in a power plant with radiation in two or three years,” says Kim. “In five to 10 years it should be able to do more physical work like disassembling a power plant by cutting pieces and bringing them out. In 15 to 20 years, it should be able to enter a building fire and possibly save a life.”In situations such as the Fukushima nuclear disaster, robots or drones are the only safe choice for reconnaissance. Drones have some advantages over robots, but they cannot apply large forces necessary for tasks such as opening doors, and there are many disaster situations in which fallen debris prohibits drone flight.By comparison, the Cheetah III can apply human-level forces to the environment for hours at a time. It can often climb or jump over debris, or even move it out of the way. Compared to a drone, it’s also easier for a robot to closely inspect instrumentation, flip switches, and push buttons, says Kim. “The Cheetah III can measure temperatures or chemical compounds, or close and open valves.”Advantages over tracked robots include the ability to maneuver over debris and climb stairs. “Stairs are some of the biggest obstacles for robots,” says Kim. “We think legged robots are better in man-made environments, especially in disaster situations where there are even more obstacles.”The Cheetah III was slowed down a bit compared to the Cheetah II, but also given greater strength and flexibility. “We increased the torque so it can open the heavy doors found in power plants,” says Kim. “We increased the range of motion to 12 degrees of freedom by using 12 electric motors that can articulate the body and the limbs.”This is still far short of the flexibility of animals, which have over 600 muscles. Yet, the Cheetah III can compensate somewhat with other techniques. “We maximize each joint’s work space to achieve a reasonable amount of reachability,” says Kim.The design can even use the legs for manipulation. “By utilizing the flexibility of the limbs, the Cheetah III can open the door with one leg,” says Kim. “It can stand on three legs and equip the fourth limb with a customized swappable hand to open the door or close a valve.”The Cheetah III has an improved payload capability to carry heavier sensors and cameras, and possibly even to drop off supplies to disabled victims. However, it’s a long way from being able to rescue them. The Cheetah III is still limited to a 20-kilogram payload, and can travel untethered for four to five hours with a minimal payload.”Eventually, we hope to develop a machine that can rescue a person,” says Kim. “We’re not sure if the robot would carry the victim or bring a carrying device,” he says. “Our current design can at least see if there are any victims or if there are any more potential dangerous events.”Experimenting with human-robot interactionThe semiautonomous Cheetah III can make ambulatory and navigation decisions on its own. However, for disaster work, it will primarily operate by remote control.”Fully autonomous inspection, especially in disaster response, would be very hard,” says Kim. Among other issues, autonomous decision making often takes time, and can involve trial and error, which could delay the response.”People will control the Cheetah III at a high level, offering assistance, but not handling every detail,” says Kim. “People could tell it to go to a specific location at the map, find this place, and open that door. When it comes to hand action or manipulation, the human will take over more control and tell the robot what tool to use.”Humans may also be able to assist with more instinctive controls. For example, if the Cheetah uses one of its legs as an arm and then applies force, it’s hard to maintain balance. Kim is now investigating whether human operators can use “balanced feedback” to keep the Cheetah from falling over while applying full force.”Even standing on two or three legs, it would still be able to perform high force actions that require complex balancing,” says Kim. “The human operator can feel the balance, and help the robot shift its momentum to generate more force to open or hammer a door.”The Biomimetic Robotics Lab is exploring balanced feedback with another robot project called Hermes (Highly Efficient Robotic Mechanisms and Electromechanical System). Like the Cheetah III, it’s a fully articulated, dynamic legged robot designed for disaster response. Yet, the Hermes is bipedal, and completely teleoperated by a human who wears a telepresence helmet and a full body suit. Like the Hermes, the suit is rigged with sensors and haptic feedback devices.”The operator can sense the balance situation and react by using body weight or directly implementing more forces,” says Kim.The latency required for such intimate real-time feedback is difficult to achieve with Wi-Fi, even when it’s not blocked by walls, distance, or wireless interference. “In most disaster situations, you would need some sort of wired communication,” says Kim. “Eventually, I believe we’ll use reinforced optical fibers.”Improving mobility for the elderlyLooking beyond disaster response, Kim envisions an important role for agile, dynamic legged robots in health care: improving mobility for the fast-growing elderly population. Numerous robotics projects are targeting the elderly market with chatty social robots. Kim is imagining something more fundamental.”We still don’t have a technology that can help impaired or elderly people seamlessly move from the bed to the wheelchair to the car and back again,” says Kim. “A lot of elderly people have problems getting out of bed and climbing stairs. Some elderly with knee joint problems, for example, are still pretty mobile on flat ground, but can’t climb down the stairs unassisted. That’s a very small fraction of the day when they need help. So we’re looking for something that’s lightweight and easy to use for short-time help.”Kim is currently working on “creating a technology that could make the actuator safe,” he says. “The electric actuators we use in the Cheetah are already safer than other machines because they can easily absorb energy. Most robots are stiff, which would cause a lot of impact forces. Our machines give a little.”By combining such safe actuator technology with some of the Hermes technology, Kim hopes to develop a robot that can help elderly people in the future. “Robots can not only address the expected labor shortages for elder care, but also the need to maintain privacy and dignity,” he says. Explore further Researchers create robotic cheetah This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. This story is republished courtesy of MIT News (web.mit.edu/newsoffice/), a popular site that covers news about MIT research, innovation and teaching. Citation: Cheetah III robot preps for a role as a first responder (2018, March 27) retrieved 18 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-03-cheetah-iii-robot-preps-role.html The dog-sized Cheetah II can run on four articulated legs at up to 6.4 meters per second, make mild running turns, and leap to a height of 60 centimeters. The robot can also autonomously determine how to avoid or jump over obstacles.Kim is now developing a third-generation robot, the Cheetah III. Instead of improving the Cheetah’s speed and jumping capabilities, Kim is converting the Cheetah into a commercially viable robot with enhancements such as a greater payload capability, wider range of motion, and a dexterous gripping function. The Cheetah III will initially act as a spectral inspection robot in hazardous environments such as a compromised nuclear plant or chemical factory. It will then evolve to serve other emergency response needs.”The Cheetah II was focused on high speed locomotion and agile jumping, but was not designed to perform other tasks,” says Kim. “With the Cheetah III, we put a lot of practical requirements on the design so it can be an all-around player. It can do high-speed motion and powerful actions, but it can also be very precise.”The Biomimetic Robotics Lab is also finishing up a smaller, stripped down version of the Cheetah, called the Mini Cheetah, designed for robotics research and education. Other projects include a teleoperated humanoid robot called the Hermes that provides haptic feedback to human operators. There’s also an early stage investigation into applying Cheetah-like actuator technology to address mobility challenges among the disabled and elderly.Conquering mobility on the land”With the Cheetah project, I was initially motivated by copying land animals, but I also realized there was a gap in ground mobility,” says Kim. “We have conquered air and water transportation, but we haven’t conquered ground mobility because our technologies still rely on artificially paved roads or rails. None of our transportation technologies can reliably travel over natural ground or even man-made environments with stairs and curbs. Dynamic legged robots can help us conquer mobility on the ground.”One challenge with legged systems is that they “need high torque actuators,” says Kim. “A human hip joint can generate more torque than a sports car, but achieving such condensed high torque actuation in robots is a big challenge.”
Explore further Video ad business booming in US: market tracker This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Credit: CC0 Public Domain Facebook is expected to bring in $6.8 billion in digital video ad revenue this year, up 42 percent from 2017, according to research firm EMarketer. The Menlo Park, Calif., company, which owns photo and video app Instagram, is outpacing video ad sales for other social media competitors, including Twitter Inc. and Snap Inc. Facebook commands 87 percent of U.S. social network video ad spending, compared with Twitter’s 8 percent and Snap’s 5 percent.The growth comes as Facebook has been heavily investing in expanding its video offerings with several scripted shows such as “Sorry for Your Loss,” which stars Elizabeth Olsen and has received critical acclaim similar to network TV shows.The longer-video format gives Facebook more opportunities to sell ads and encourage its 2.2 billion monthly active users to spend more time on the social network, analysts said.”Increasingly, the type of advertising (businesses) have done on TV is more available to them on streaming and social platforms,” Paul Verna, a principal analyst for EMarketer, told the Los Angeles Times last month.Facebook’s video ad sales are expected to represent nearly 30 percent of the company’s total revenue this year, EMarketer said. That’s a huge growth compared with EMarketer’s estimates for 2017, when Facebook’s video ad sales represented just 12 percent of the company’s total ad revenue.Video has become a popular way advertisers reach consumers, as more people spend time watching shows on their smartphones. This year, video ads will represent a quarter of U.S. digital ad spending, according to EMarketer.”It’s just assumed that all these digital platforms are part of the new TV,” Verna said.Video ads also are driving Santa Monica-based Snap’s ad revenue, representing 60 percent of those sales, EMarketer said.The research firm did not count YouTube in its projection of video ad spending on social networks, saying it is not considered part of that category. But the Google-owned company continues to be a major player for U.S. digital video ads. This year, YouTube is expected to bring in more than $3 billion in net video ad sales, the firm estimates. Facebook Inc. is rapidly increasing its ad revenue from video, capturing 25 percent of the nation’s digital ad spending in that category, according to a forecast released Tuesday. ©2018 Los Angeles Times Distributed by Tribune Content Agency, LLC. Citation: Report: Facebook captures 25 percent of U.S. digital video ad revenue (2018, October 10) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-10-facebook-captures-percent-digital-video.html
The first of its kind, the app allows victims to report hate incidents beyond those captured by police. Credit: Hate Incident Reporting System Group Explore further Provided by University of Utah All reporting is confidential—any data used for research purposes is anonymized and the Institutional Review Board has approved their methods. The app askes for a location the incident occurred and includes an option to add a photo or video. Users then classify the incident out of multiple types of bias: religion, disability, gender, identity, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation and other.Then the user chooses the category from propaganda, property damage, verbal, violent Propaganda could include something like posters on college campuses, and verbal could be someone yelling a homophobic slur.”These things are more fleeting, and can be easily captured by the quick use of the app,” said Nicolosi. “It will hopefully make people feel like they have a voice to report hate somewhere, feel like their being heard. They’ll know that we’re adding it to our research effort and are looking for solutions.”The app is still in the pilot stage. As more people use it, they’ll make modifications and eventually scale it up. The researchers acknowledge that false reporting is possible, however there are safeguards. Photos and videos provide some proof, and a big event can spark multiple reports. Researchers from the University of Utah want to fill that gap with an app.Emily Nicolosi, researcher, and Richard Medina, professor of geography, along with the DIGIT Lab developed an app that allows people to report incidents of hate. The first of its kind, the app accepts reports beyond crimes captured in police records. Users from around the country can document all incident types, from derogatory epithets written in bathrooms to slurs yelled from a car window in addition to violent assaults.”The major problem we’re dealing with is that hate crimes are so underreported, not only to police, but from police to the federal government,” said Nicolosi. “There are cases when it can be difficult to report hate to the police, especially for undocumented people. We’re hoping that this could be a space where people feel comfortable.”The researchers and the DIGIT lab are housed in the Department of Geography at the U. The app, called the Hate Incident Reporting System, is currently available on Google Play and should be available on Apple’s App Store shortly.”We decided to create this while we were doing research on hate crimes. The overall quality and completeness of available data is terrible,” said Medina. The FBI defines a hate crime as “a criminal offense against a person or property motivated in whole or in part by an offender’s bias against a race, religion, disability, sexual orientation, ethnicity, gender or gender identity.””This is about research. We have no motivation to be biased. We’d like to see it used nationally to get better hate incident statistics, and to understand why, how, and where people are active in hateful incidents, and how that offends or hurts people,” said Medina. Screenshot of page to report hate incident by action type. Credit: Hate Incident Reporting System group How it worksThe app’s mission statement reads:”Our interest in hate incidents goes beyond criminal actions and seeks to gain knowledge of all forms of hate, including constitutionally-protected hate speech. By collecting reports of all hateful actions, we hope to generate a better understanding of hate, so that it might be more effectively addressed at local, regional and national levels.” The app also provides definitions and links to resources.Filling the massive data gapTwo federal agencies track and report on hate crime incidents, victims, offenses and perpetrators; the FBI’s Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) program receives data from crimes pursued by local law enforcement agencies, and the Bureau of Justice Statistics National Criminal Victimization Survey (NCVS) collects both reported and unreported to police. However, the two sources have wildly different statistics—the NCVS reported that there are about 250,000 hate crime victims per year, while the UCR data estimated just over 8,800 victims in 2017. The NCVS found that more than half of all hate crimes were not reported to the police.One issue is that local, state, university and tribal law enforcement agencies are not required to report hate crimes to the FBI database. Additionally, states have varying definitions for which groups can be victims of hate. For example, some states exclude bias against sexual orientation. For years Utah’s hate crime law listed no specific groups at all, making it nearly impossible for prosecutors to charge an incident as one motivated by hate. This year, both chambers of Utah’s state legislature passed a bill that would define protected groups and allow judges to increase penalties for perpetrators of hate-motivated crimes.The app will not only benefit hate crime research, but could also catch alarming patterns that signal violence.”We want to catch trends before anything violent happens, these types of things come in waves. If we see spikes in activity, then we might be able to prepare for any bigger violent issues,” said Medina. “We’re not profiting off of this. We’re doing this for the public. We’re going to communicate what’s happening in your community.” Screenshot of page to report hate incident by bias type. Credit: Hate Incident Reporting System group What the latest FBI data do and do not tell us about hate crimes in the US Citation: Hate incidents are notoriously underreported; now, there’s an app for that (2019, April 8) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-04-incidents-notoriously-underreported-app.html The Federal Bureau of Investigation is responsible for tracking hate crimes across the country, but the data are notoriously unreliable. Despite the FBI recording an all-time high in hate-motivated incidents in 2017 (the most recent year’s statistics available) the number is likely much higher. Low reporting from victims to police and inconsistent reporting from police to federal authorities have created a massive gap in how we understand hate in America. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.